No bibliography. Upper-division undergraduates through faculty. January M.
Chaplin "Wellesley College " [P]olitics, society, philosophy, religion, science and gender all influenced Boyle in his scientific how his choice of experiments and why the way he interpreted his results --and yet, ironically, enduring science was done. Boyle's Law of Gases is a very important scientific law worked out by Robert Boyle in the mids. His experiments are still considered examples of good scientific work and have recently been studied along with their historical and intellectual context by philosophers, historians, and sociologists.
Now there is controversy over whether Boyle's work was based only on the experimental evidence or was influenced by the politics and religious controversies of the time, including especially class and gender politics. Potter argues that even good science is sometimes influenced by gender and class politics, and she shows that the work leading to the Gas Law, while certainly based on the experimental evidence, was also based on class and gendered considerations. At issue were two descriptions of nature, each supporting radically different visions of class and gender arrangements.
Many hylozooists - those who held that all matter is animated - advocated heretical religious ideas and revolutionary politics threatening social stability in seventeenth-century England.
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Language: English. Brand new Book. Gender influences refer to the socially constructed roles, responsibilities, attitudes, behavioral norms, and relative power that a society differentially attributes to women and men. Therefore, social and cultural factors must be considered when attempting to understand gender differences in alcohol use across countries. Men may use drinking to demonstrate masculinity, facilitate aggression, exert power, and take risks. For these reasons, men may have greater motivation to drink than women.
For example, research shows that risk taking is associated with heavy drinking among men but that women are more likely than men to use risk- reduction strategies when drinking Iwamoto et al. Women also are often expected to rein in the drinking of their male partners Holmila and Raitasalo Women who drink are more likely than men to stop drinking.
This may be related to their generally lower levels of drinking, their social roles, and the fact that some women do not resume drinking or return to pre-pregnancy levels after pregnancy. However, a review of research examining birth cohorts and alcohol use across countries found high rates of heavy episodic drinking among women in younger cohorts in North America and Europe, suggesting a narrowing of the gender gap and a potential shift in social attitudes regarding gender and alcohol use Keyes et al.
In Finland, an examination of survey data collected over a period of 40 years suggests a cultural shift toward greater alcohol use, especially by women. Weekly drinking, frequency of moderate drinking, quantity of alcohol consumed per occasion, and intoxication increased among both genders over time but proportionately more among women. An analysis of survey data from Hispanics living in major U. Employment and other social roles are believed to be protective against drinking problems among heterosexual men and women.
Jobs and social responsibilities tend to promote enhanced self-esteem and offer greater social support, and they entail responsibilities and more intensive social monitoring that may discourage excessive drinking. However, in part because of societal stigma and discrimination, fewer lesbian women and gay men engage in traditional roles such as marriage, childbearing, and childrearing or have responsibilities associated with social roles believed to limit alcohol use especially among women in the general population Hughes Even SM couples in long-term relationships find less support for their relationships than do unmarried heterosexual cohabiting couples.
For SM couples who do have children, the stressors associated with parenting may be exacerbated. For example, many lesbian and gay parents must deal with the realistic fear of custody battles over competency to raise children, homophobic remarks made to their children, and disclosing their sexual orientation to the children and others. They reported that, among those who identified themselves as SM based on sexual identity, behavior, or attraction, lesbian women had more than 3 times greater odds of lifetime alcohol use disorders and of any lifetime substance use disorder than did heterosexual women.
In contrast, the odds of lifetime alcohol use disorders for men with histories of only male sex partners were significantly lower than those for men who reported only female sex partners. Similarly, in a study based on data from the National Alcohol Survey, Drabble and colleagues reported that, among current drinkers, lesbians were approximately 7 times more likely and bisexual women nearly 6. Lesbians were approximately 11 times more likely and bisexual women 8 times more likely to report 2 or more negative social consequences related to drinking compared with heterosexual women.
Seeking treatment or other types of help for an alcohol problem was 8 times more likely among lesbians and 4 times more likely among bisexual women than among heterosexual women. There were no significant differences between SM and heterosexual men on any of these outcomes. This gender-related pattern is similar among youth. In an analysis of data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System YRBSS survey, Talley and colleagues found that, among to year-olds surveyed, differences in alcohol use outcomes were greater between SM and heterosexual girls than between SM and heterosexual boys.
Notably, SM girls reported higher rates of lifetime alcohol use and past-month heavy episodic drinking than did SM boys, heterosexual girls, or heterosexual boys. For instance, 30 percent of SM girls reported past-month heavy episodic drinking compared with Studies of alcohol use among SMs outside the United States generally show smaller differences between SM and heterosexual populations, especially for men.
For example, in a study examining sexual orientation differences in health risk behaviors among 1, to year-old vocational school students in northern Thailand, van Griensven and colleagues found that AOD use patterns among SM females were similar to those of heterosexual males, whereas patterns of SM males were similar to those of heterosexual females. The authors speculate that one explanation for this pattern may be that SM males tend to socialize with heterosexual females who are less likely to use AODs and therefore are less likely to use substances themselves.
The researchers examined high-volume drinking average daily consumption greater than 20 g of ethanol [pure alcohol] for women and greater than 30 g for men and heavy single-occasion drinking at least monthly consumption of large quantities of alcohol [in most countries, 60 g or more of ethanol in a day] among heterosexual and SM respondents defined on the basis of gender of romantic or cohabiting partner.
In North America, SMW were significantly more likely than heterosexual women to report high-volume drinking and heavy single- occasion drinking, but no differences were found among men on these outcomes. In a meta-analysis of 25 studies from 8 countries in Europe, North America, Australia, and New Zealand, King and colleagues concluded that the risk of past-year AOD dependence was 50 percent higher among gay men, lesbian women, and bisexual men and women than among heterosexual men and women, with lesbian and bisexual women at especially high risk.
Nonadherence to traditional gender roles for women may influence drinking among SMW—especially in lower- and middle-income countries where the value placed on traditional gender roles remains strong.
Using data from the National Youth Survey, a nationally representative sample of to year-olds in Mexico, Ortiz-Hernandez and colleagues found higher prevalence of alcohol use among lesbian and bisexual females, but not among gay and bisexual males, than among their heterosexual counterparts. The authors concluded that results support findings from previous studies of greater differences in the relationship between sexual orientation and alcohol use among women than among men.tiopailapotu.ml
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They further suggest that higher frequency and volume of drinking among SMW may be related to increased socialization in bars and more widespread adoption of masculine traits compared with heterosexual women. These findings are consistent with those from a study conducted in Taiwan, where the authors Kuang et al. Rates of drinking generally decline with age for both men and women World Health Organization , although research with older adults suggests that men reduce their drinking later than women do Brennan et al.
In , the proportion of people in the United States reporting at least 1 drink in the previous 30 days i. The same survey also found that International surveys, however, show a somewhat different pattern. Based on GENACIS data, Wilsnack and colleagues reported that the prevalence of current drinking declined consistently with age in only a minority of the surveys for which 3 age groups were available.
The prevalence of high-volume drinking declined with age among men in only 3 of the 34 surveys, and among women in only 11 of the 34 surveys. Most age-related declines in high-volume drinking occurred in high-income countries: Europe, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand.
Alcohol use among SM groups also decreases with age, but the declines tend to be smaller and to occur at later ages relative to heterosexuals. In an earlier study, McKirnan and Peterson a found similar rates of alcohol problems among to year-old gay men 26 percent and heterosexual men 29 percent , but higher rates among gay men 19 percent than heterosexual men 7 percent who were ages 41— In the same study, lesbian women in the oldest age group age 41—60 were 3 times as likely to report alcohol-related problems as were heterosexual women in that age group 15 percent vs.
A recent analysis using pooled data from the and U. National Alcohol Surveys examined heavy drinking and alcohol-related consequences for White, Black, and Hispanic men and women Witbrodt et al. The study found that, across all levels of heavy drinking, Black women drinkers had greater odds of alcohol dependence relative to White women drinkers, but no other significant differences were noted among the 3 groups of women.
Compared with White men, Hispanic men who reported low or moderate heavy drinking also had significantly elevated odds of alcohol dependence. In a race- and ethnicity-diverse community sample of SMW, Hughes and colleagues found that Black respondents were nearly four times more likely than White respondents to report heavy drinking.
Both White and non-White SM youth are at risk for alcohol problems. Talley and colleagues reported that, among to year-olds, White SMs were more likely than White heterosexuals to report ever drinking In the general population, higher levels of socioeconomic status SES are associated with more frequent alcohol use, whereas lower SES often is associated with heavier drinking Huckle et al.
With regard to gender, analyses of survey data from the Netherlands showed that abstinence was inversely associated with educational level for both men and women. Among male drinkers, excessive drinking and very excessive drinking were more prevalent in the group with the lowest educational level. There was no significant relationship between educational level and prevalence of excessive drinking among women van Oers et al. In England, higher household income was associated with greater risk of alcohol use and problem use, especially among girls Melotti et al.
A study that compared alcohol use among Slovak adolescents in and found no socioeconomic differences among boys and greater likelihood for girls of high SES to be drinkers in , but not in Pitel et al. Although scant research has examined the relationship between SES and alcohol use among SMs, studies of education and income are relevant. Some research has found that same-sex couples who live together earn less than heterosexual married couples, possibly because of workforce discrimination Badgett and Lee , whereas other studies find that cohabiting same-sex couples have more advantages in terms of education and income than opposite- sex cohabiting couples Gates , ; Kastanis and Wilson ; Krivickas In contrast, bisexual adults often show greater disadvantage in earnings than gay, lesbian, and heterosexual adults Gates In terms of general health, same-sex cohabitors report poorer health than their heterosexual married counterparts at the same SES levels Liu et al.
Stevenson is a widely acclaimed public interest lawyer who has dedicated his career to helping the poor, the incarcerated, and the condemned. Enslaved people who have just escaped from a Virginia plantation in Library of Congress. When eleven Southern states seceded from the Union to form the Confederate States of America, sparking the Civil War in , they made no secret of their ultimate aim: to preserve the institution of slavery. Instead, Lincoln favored a gradual process of compensated emancipation and voluntary colonization, which would encourage freed black people to emigrate to Africa.
As the Civil War dragged on, however, increasing numbers of enslaved African Americans fled slavery to relocate behind Union lines, and the cause of emancipation became more militarily and politically expedient. In most Confederate states where the proclamation did apply, resistance to emancipation was inevitable and there was almost no federal effort to enforce the grant of freedom.
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Many used deception and violence to keep enslaved people from leaving plantations. The legal instruments that led to the formal end of racialized chattel slavery in America did nothing to address the myth of racial hierarchy that sustained slavery, nor did they establish a national commitment to the alternative ideology of racial equality. Black people might be free from involuntary labor under the law, but that did not mean Southern whites recognized them as fully human. White Southern identity was grounded in a belief that whites are inherently superior to African Americans; following the war, whites reacted violently to the notion that they would now have to treat their former human property as equals and pay for their labor.
In numerous recorded incidents, plantation owners attacked black people simply for claiming their freedom. The failure to unearth those roots would leave black Americans exposed to terrorism and racial subordination for more than a century. Formerly enslaved people were beaten and murdered for asserting they were free after the Civil War. Without federal troops, freed black men and women remained subject to violence and intimidation for any act or gesture that showed independence or freedom.
Library of Congress. He also rescinded orders granting black farmers tracts of land confiscated from Confederates. Instead of facilitating black land ownership, Johnson advocated a new practice that soon replaced slavery as a primary source of Southern agricultural labor: sharecropping.
Under this system, black laborers worked white-owned land in exchange for a share of the crop at harvest minus costs for food and lodging, often in the same slave quarters they had previously inhabited.